This website provides beginners with material on implementation of non-market valuation (NMV) with R ( NMV methods have been widely applied in the social sciences such as environmental economics, agricultural economics, and transportation economics. Although various methods are associated with NMV, we focus on contingent valuation, discrete choice experiments, best–worst scaling, travel cost method, and hedonic pricing. This website is also a complement to the book Stated Preference Methods Using R.

The contents are currently limited to tutorials on contingent valuation (single- and double-bounded dichotomous choice formats), discrete choice experiments, case 1 best–worst scaling, and case 2 best–worst scaling. We will subsequently improve the tutorials and provide them for the remaining methods as well. Please tell us if you have any comments and/or suggestions for our project. Especially, we are looking forward to feedback from those who have used the contents on this website for teaching in universities (see below for the contact email address).

The contents on this website are copyrighted and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International ( When using the contents for your publications, please cite the top page of this website in the following manner:

Even if you would like to use a single tutorial, please use the URL of the top page in your references as follows (CV tutorial is assumed to be cited):

  • Fogarty J. and Aizaki H. (2018) An Illustrative Example of Contingent Valuation. NMVR Project Team, Non-Market Valuation with R. URL (accessed on DD/MM/YY).

The contents on this website assume that you are somewhat familiar with R (and RStudio, if necessary). If you are completely unfamiliar with R, you are advised to consult [An Introduction to R] ( or the other support material, which may be found on the websites mentioned below, before referring the contents.

The contents (will) use the following CRAN packages:

The following lines of code could help you to install these packages into your R:

Note that warning messages may be shown on your R Console window when installing these packages if your R is not the latest version. The latest version of R is therefore recommended.

Members of the NMVR Project and the contact email address are as follows:

Hideo Aizaki: ( should be replaced with @).

While reasonable efforts have been made to provide reliable information, we are not responsible for any errors in the material provided on this website and shall not be liable for any damages of any kind arising from the use of any material found on this website.

The works of this website were supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 16K07886.